Unmasking Hatred in Schools: Anti-Semitism in Ethnic Studies

A group of educator-activists promoting racial grievance and Marxism aim to turn American school children into foot soldiers for their cause. Under the banner of the Coalition for Liberated Ethnic Studies (CLES), they seek to present American society through the paradigm of oppressors and oppressed – imbuing students with an antagonistic view of America as a “settler-colonial state.”

Revealing the dark prejudice lurking beneath their proclamations of social justice, they apply this paradigm to the world’s only Jewish state, Israel. Israel alone among the foreign nations, is singled out and characterized as a pernicious example of active settler-colonialism, justifying the urgent and uncritical adoption of the Palestinian cause.

This toxic ideology exploded into full view with their response to the massacres of Israeli civilians by Palestinian terrorists that began on October 7, 2023. Even as the horrific images and accounts of Hamas’ atrocities were coming in, CLES activists lost no time in reposting a message on their social media that endorsed the Hamas terrorists’ stated mission of annihilating Israel and its residents:   “FROM THE RIVER TO THE SEA #PALESTINE WILL BE FREE!”- widely understood as a call to rid the land of its Jews.

This report describes how Ethnic Studies has been transformed into a vehicle of anti-Zionist/anti-Semitic indoctrination by radical activists. It reviews CLES’s extreme agenda, highlighting some key figures in the movement and answering the following questions:

  • What is their ideology and what are their goals?
  • How did this movement evolve and spread from its California base to the national landscape?
  • Who are leading figures in this effort to repurpose American education for such destructive and inhumane political ends?
  • Why do they focus on defaming the state of Israel and the Jewish people?

Diverging from Longstanding Teaching About America’s Racial and Ethnic Groups

Born out of radical race-conscious student movements that emerged in the 1960s, universities embraced Ethnic Studies to ameliorate campus unrest and student demands. As such, it lacks the foundation of scholarly material that exist in other subject areas taught in American schools. The lack of academic rigor has left Ethnic Studies susceptible to manipulation.

Ethnic Studies proponents succeeded in promoting their ideology and materials as the best way to incorporate historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic groups in public school curricula.

In 2019, California’s legislature passed a bill endorsing Ethnic Studies for the state’s public schools. Its programs and materials, however, do not resemble units long taught in history and literature courses that recounted the struggles of African Americans, Indigenous Americans, and each new wave of immigrant groups, and how they enriched American society.

Instead, a prominent element within the Ethnic Studies movement that calls itself Liberated Ethnic Studies promotes political activism and features a strident anti-Western and anti-capitalist message. Anti-Israel activists have firmly ensconced themselves in this movement and have seized the opportunity to inculcate teachers and students with their enmity toward Israel and the Jewish people.

Individual school districts have embraced the Liberated version, ignoring longstanding practice to carefully vet new curricula to ensure classroom material is free of serious defects and political agendas. It has been a longstanding convention that political agendas have no place in public education.

The ideology underpinning Liberated Ethnic Studies is now spreading across the national landscape through a coordinated and well-organized network and in the process spreading modern-day antisemitism.

A Nationwide Gathering of Anti-Israel Activists 

A January 2022 meeting launched CLES’s national grassroots effort and highlighted its focus on “Palestine.”[1] Subsequently, CLES organized additional national meetings.

Organizations that comprise the Coalition for Liberated Ethnic Studies are listed on its website and appear on social media as well as in articles and reports by others. Among these organizations are anti-Israel groups that express open hostility to Israel, Jews and Jewish organizations:




CLES activists created a network to promote their ideology that casts Jews and the State of Israel as villains. For example, in Minnesota CLES member Brian Lozenski touts the Palestinian narrative with the claim that:

”Ethnic Studies explores the colonial roots of the dispossession of Palestinian land and the creation of Zionism.”  

Lozenski does not offer an evidenced and sourced historical account but limits his focus exclusively to Palestinian talking points, ignoring the well documented Jewish roots in the land of Israel and the supporting archeological evidence. Conversely, there is no discussion of the Palestinian Arabs roots from a diverse group of Middle Easterners, many of whom migrated to the Palestine Mandate coincident with opportunities arising from Jewish economic activity.

The political clout of the anti-Israel activists is evidenced by the undeserved prominence CLES gives to the Palestinian ethnic group,  out of proportion to the tiny Palestinian student population which is much smaller than many other ethnic groups that receive little or no attention. Moreover, the Palestinians have never experienced systematic discrimination in America, supposedly a key component of Liberated Ethnic Studies’ philosophy.

Nevertheless, districts are readily approving curriculum containing false and biased materials against Israel and in doing so, injecting a foreign conflict into a curriculum that is purported to be about historically discriminated ethnic and racial groups in America.

So why is this happening?

Anti-Israel Activists Take Key Roles in California’s Liberated Ethnic Studies 

In 2019-2020, Liberated Ethnic Studies (LES)  activists promoting their politicized model curriculum suffered a temporary setback when the California Department of Education rejected their draft of an ethnic studies curriculum after being flooded with complaints about its bigoted characterizations of Jews and Israel. Intent on inculcating K-12 students with hatred toward Israel, creators of the rejected curriculum banded together to form a group called Liberated Ethnic Studies Model Curriculum Consortium (LESMCC).  

Already, in the summer of 2020, during the COVID lock-downs, California’s LES teacher-activists exchanged emails, some on their public-school servers,[2] discussing strategies for their “ultimate goal” of including Arab-American studies and “specifically the occupation of Palestine” in the Ethnic Studies curriculum.[3] An initial project sought to draft 6th-12th grade lessons to address “the occupation of Palestine.”[4]

One of the teacher-activists involved in these early email exchanges was Samia Shoman[5] an LESMCC leader.[6] Among her  roles is co-coordinator of  the Middle East Children’s Alliance (MECA) Teach Palestine Project.[7] MECA is a radical BDS- supporting pro-Palestinian organization spreading false incendiary allegations about Israel’s treatment of Palestinians. Its work in K-12 schools is through the Teach Palestine project.

In teacher workshops,  Shoman frequently excludes Israel from maps of the Middle East and depicts alleged Palestinians suffering under Israeli oppression and occupation but entirely conceals information about Palestinian terrorism. Her one-sided narratives exclusively portray Palestinian children as victims of Israeli soldiers without any context. They are not told that intrusive Israeli measures were a direct response to a horrific and escalating campaign of Palestinian suicide bombers from 1994-2005 and other acts of  terrorism against Israelis. Shoman takes advantage of the fact that today’s students are too young to remember this campaign of terror and how deeply it shook Israeli society.

Jody Sokolower is a co-founder of CLES and works with Shoman as co-coordinator of the Teach Palestine Project of the Middle-East Children’s Alliance (MECA). She cloaks her defamatory attacks against Israel by presenting herself “as a Jew,” as if that excuses her from telling the truth.

Explaining why she believes it so important for American students to learn the Palestinian narrative, Sokolower offers absurdly false analogies. She  contends that criminalization of youth in America is tied to criminalization of youth in Palestine but provides no evidence to support this claim.  She also falsely claims that Palestinians are being pushed out of their neighborhoods just like children of color and their families in America.

Shoman and Sokolower team up to present teacher workshops together and with other CLES activists like XITO. At the “Northwest Teaching for Social Justice”Conference in 2021 Shoman and Sokolower presented the concept of connecting Palestine to American students’ lives by highlighting her book, Determined to Stay: Palestinian Youth Fight for Their Village. Employing personal narrative, the book presents one-sided account that are impossible to verify and do not align with known facts. She presents Jews as oppressors and colonizers who routinely expel Arabs from their homes. Students are thus encouraged to adopt a distorted and hostile view of Israel.

An oft-used deceptive tactic employed by Liberated Ethnic Studies activists is to invert the attitudes and intentions of the two sides,to present the Israelis as intransigent and intent on causing harm to the Palestinians and the Palestinians as their blameless victims, while often it is just the reverse that is true, as graphically demonstrated by Hamas’ barbaric attacks on innocent Israeli civilians on October 7, 2023.  But the issue of Palestinian terrorist attacks on civilians in Israel and how this affects the conflict is entirely concealed from students.

Nor do LES activists mention anything about the Palestinian leaders’ rejection of Israeli offers of peace and coexistence in 1947, 1967, 2000 and 2008 and their failure to live up to the Oslo Peace Accords provisions after 1993. Students are not told that Palestinian opinion polls repeatedly show the majority of the population continues to favor armed conflict to achieve their goals and that groups like Hamas enjoy widespread support.  

Strategies to Promote Solidarity with Palestine

CLES member organizations ‘Points of Unity’  are committed to include “Palestine” in Ethnic Studies. They promote it on social media, during conferences, workshops or when hired by districts for teacher Ethnic Studies training, as they try to divert the subject of ethnic studies to the Palestinian narrative.

CLES activists prepared slides to include Palestinians as victims for a session at an “Education and Justice” conference in 2021:[8]

The slide entitled “Palestine as part of Ethnic Studies” offers Palestinians as an example of “resistance” to systems of oppression, based on white supremacy. The notion of white supremacy applied to the Israeli-Arab conflict is, however, a canard. In fact, more than half the Israeli population are Jews and their descendants who fled Arab lands. Moreover, those who promote the canard never mention that the indigenous population of the land was subjected to Islamic supremacy starting in the 7th century CE.

Aligned Liberated Ethnic Studies consultant organizations promote the same message as CLES. Arizona’s XITO  and MECA’s Teach Palestine Project partnered in a series of teacher workshops in 2023, promoting the inclusion of “Palestine” in Ethnic Studies, and focusing on Israel’s alleged oppression of Palestinians, leaving out the context of Palestinian terrorism and refusal to live in peace with Jews:

CLES consultant-activists insert Palestine into Ethnic Studies teacher training, cloaking it as educational material. In the North Thurston School district in Washington State, XITO instructed teachers to make connections between Ethnic Studies, Black Lives Matter and Palestine.[9]

Fabricating connections between Palestinians and American ethnic and racial groups is a common strategy used by CLES activists (reported here). During a LESMCC-led Ethnic Studies lecture series in Santa Cruz, the lecturer on African American Studies took a detour to promote “Solidarity with Palestine.”[10]

A similar tactic is also used by BlackLivesMatter@Schools. A New York City chapter promoted “Black+Palestinian Solidarity” by encouraging students to become boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) activists against Israel.

CLES often uses social media to promote their focus on Palestine:

Liberated Ethnic Studies activists conceal the Palestinian embrace of violence and rejection of peace and statehood from Palestinian leadership. Such intentional misrepresentation of the facts discourages thoughtful discussion and inquiry and resorts to emotional manipulation.

False Claims of Palestinian Indigeneity and Israeli Colonialism

From its inception, CLES promoted the historic falsehood that Israel is an example of settler colonialism and that the Jews oppress indigenous Palestinian victims in a manner similar to the treatment of indigenous Americans. That Jews are indigenous to the land, a fact amply demonstrated by archaeological evidence, is suppressed.

The liberated coalition activists have rewritten history so that only the Palestinians, and not the Jews, are presented as the indigenous people of the land. There is no acknowledgement that Israel is the ancestral Jewish homeland or mention of the evidence of the Jews’ unbroken commitment to their historical homeland, found in the Jewish Bible, Jewish prayer books and centuries-old religious traditions.  

In a Boston Public Schools’ summer 2021 ethnic studies teacher workshop[11] a slide presented in the context of discussing the topic of white supremacy  was titled “Genocide/Colonialism”:

This map has been repeatedly exposed as promoting the falsehood that all of the land was originally possessed by Palestinians. In fact, most of the land was never owned by Palestinian Arabs. In the centuries before Israel was established, it was “state” land under the control of the distant Ottoman Turkish Empire. 

Contrary to the implied message of the map, there has never been an independent country of Palestine. The term came into common usage after the Romans changed the land’s name from Judea to Palestine (referencing the Philistines, an ancient, but no longer existing, people of Greek ancestry), to erase the Jews’ identification with the land. After that, it was intermittently used until the State of Israel was founded in 1948. The “Palestine Mandate” described by the League of Nations was intended to be a Jewish national home. Jews were referenced as “Palestinians.”

 A complete account of the land’s recorded history would show that the Jews established self-governance in the land on at least three occasions over several millennia. Otherwise, the land has been a part of empires or broken up into petty states ruled by invaders. In recent history, the Ottoman Turkish occupation lasted 402 years (1516- 1918). From 1918 to 1948 the territory was under British control. CLES activists omit essential facts of the Israeli-Arab conflict. In 1948, Israel was attacked by Arab neighbors who sought to destroy the nascent Jewish state; Israel is the only Jewish-majority country in the world and functioned as a haven for desperate, displaced Jews in the aftermath of the Holocaust. Israel has also served as a haven for Jews who were driven out of Arab-majority countries. 

The TeachPalestine-MECA website discloses its adherence to neo-Marxist Critical Race Theory (CRT):

“When middle school teachers compare ‘Manifest Destiny’ in the US to the ‘Promised Land’ in Israel as ideologies of settler colonialism, they’re teaching CRT. So we have to fight for ethnic studies, including Palestine, and CRT in the same breath. And we need a united strategy and organizing to do that!”

Jody Sokolower of the Teach Palestine Project recommends her book to promote the idea of settler-colonialism:

“Take one village to relate it to how settler colonialism operates in Palestine, and relate it to how it connects to settler colonialism here.”

The message imparted by CLES is that Israel is visible reminder of the sin of western colonialism.  

A Professional Anti-Israel Activist’s Role in the Liberated Coalition

During a CLES national meeting, Minnesota activist Brian Lozenski shared an article that blames the Jews for the world’s ills as the bedrock for the coalition’s national work.[12]

The article cast the creation of Israel as not only a problem for Palestinians, but as one that unsettles the entire region:

The inclusion of Arab American Studies in Ethnic Studies is critical. Given ​the devastating impact of Israeli colonialism on the lives of people across ​the Arab region, Palestine is a central issue for Arab students.

Even the most basic information is withheld from teachers and students, including the fact that Israel controls less than 1 percent of the land in the Middle East North African Region and barely 2 percent of the region’s population.

Listed among the authors is AROC‘s Executive Director, Lara Kiswani  a veteran BDS activist. Her organization, AROC, is dedicated to anti-Israel activism, which recently supported the DSA’s  anti-Zionism resolution. In response to the massacre in Israel AROC spouts Hamas propaganda blaming Israel for the atrocities, issuing the following statement:

“The Arab Resource & Organizing Center (AROC) holds the Israeli regime entirely responsible for all unfolding violence we’ve witnessed across historic Palestine. In the face of such violence, we recommit ourselves to the struggle for freedom and justice in Palestine, in our region, and globally. Recent events did not occur in a vacuum but as a result of unrelenting colonial aggression.”

Kiswani cemented her role as a CLES leader at the Education and Justice conference in 2021, disclosing that the proposed “Points of Unity” would include Palestine within the core areas of Ethnic Studies.[13]

Kiswani employs the jargon of the social justice movement to deceive. She shared her views on Israel and the United States as colonizing enterprises and the role of AROC:

“…the liberation of Palestine is at the core of our values. We see the US and Israel as partners historically and contemporarily as settler-colonial projects… If we understand Israel as a tool and partner to US imperialism, then we understand our struggle for Palestinian liberation as a struggle for everyone’s liberation.”

Kiswani does not acknowledge the Palestinian rejection of many opportunities for peace or the competing Jewish claim to indigeneity. As a facilitator of CLES meetings, she inveighs against “Pro-apartheid Israel alongside other right-wing forces” who just want to “stop ethnic studies altogether targeting on any critical understanding of colonialism, of racism.”[14]

Kiswani’s charges are false. Israel is not an apartheid state.  It is a democracy where all citizens, including Arabs, participate in all branches of government and civic life and enjoy the same legal rights. Palestinian Arabs living in the West Bank and Gaza are not citizens of Israel and not subject to Israeli law. Gaza is ruled by Hamas.

Animosity Toward Zionism Overflows into Contempt for Jews More Broadly

Antipathy toward Israel and support for the Palestinian side serve as unifying themes for CLES activists. Their contempt for the Jewish state overflows into enmity toward American Jews, most of whom support Israel and see the Jewish state as an essential part of their identity.

In the summer of 2021, the conference to launch the Liberated Ethnic Studies National Coalition included in its announcement: “Fight Zionists and right-wing attacks.” The announcement was also posted on Teach Palestine/MECA.

During the conference, Jody Sokolower presented with Theresa Montaño a workshop titled “Fighting for Ethnic Studies Amidst Zionist & Right-wing Attacks” The presentation connected Jews with right-wing, white supremacists, a bizarre notion considering the antisemitism of white supremacists.

At CLES meetings Jews are presented as white privileged oppressors preventing national groups of color from achieving self-determination. Jewish communal organizations such as the ADL and JCRC are grouped as “racist” organizations or “white supremacists.”

An email inviting people to a 2022 CLES meeting sent from the Arab Resource and Organizing Center (AROC)  states their national plan to organize “for rapid responses to repression and pushback from Zionist and other right-wing zealots.”[15]

Regarding the CLES launch, Kiswani blames Jews and Jewish organizations for halting the ethnic studies movement in California:

“We are facing a moment in which the terrain of education is being attacked from all sides. Mainly rightwing and other Zionist pro-Israel forces who are attempting to coopt education, to water down education and to literally strip it of its potential, its liberatory potential.”[16]

Artnelson Concordia, CLES co-founder and co-coordinator of San Francisco’s ethnic studies program mentioned  “this partnership between the MAGA hard right fighting CRT and the Zionists.”

During a CLES meeting, Jeremy Aponte, an ethnic studies coach from Boston, Massachusetts, describes the ADL and “other Zionist” organizations as the main opposition to the Boston Public Schools teachers union (BTU) push for ethnic studies in the district, claiming they were “mobilizing their forces.”[17]

CLES members, like Kiswani denigrate Zionism, the Jewish people’s right to national self-determination in their historic homeland, as a racist movement. Meanwhile, Kiswani conceals the genocidal racism of Palestinian groups like Hamas.

Financial Motives as well as Ideology

While undoubtedly these activists are driven by extremist beliefs, they also profit handsomely. They hold positions in multiple organizations that secure funding by providing consulting services. As a result, they benefit financially in a private capacity while simultaneously receiving salaries and benefits as teachers at their respective schools.

LESMCC member Allyson Titiangco-Cubales co-founded Community Responsive education (CRE) and Pinay and Pin@y Educational Partnership (PEP). She is also a full-time faculty member at San Francisco State University.

LESMCC officer and consultant Gallagher-Geurtsen is a consultant at Cutting Edge Education and a member of the faculty at University of California, San Diego.

Artnelson Concordia is an LESMCC consultant, speaker and coordinator for Santa Barbara Unified School District’s Ethnic Studies program.

Samia Shoman  consults for LESMCC and for the Liberated Ethnic Studies-aligned Acosta Educational Partnerships, works with Community Responsive Education  (CRE)[18] and is a manager for the San Mateo Union High School District. Shoman is also co-coordinator of MECA’s California-based Teach Palestine, an organization that propagandizes against Israel.

This structure of interweaving organizational affiliations has been emulated by like-minded organizations in other states, sharing messaging and resources.

In Minnesota, Brian Lozenski, a CLES leader, is an organizer for the Minnesota Ethnic Studies Coalition, that advocates for state legislation to require Ethnic Studies in K-12 throughout the state. Lozenski derives financial benefits from his consultancy work while being a faculty member at Macalister College.

Washington State’s Ethnic Studies Framework promotes resources from anti-Israel organizations associated with CLES: Washington Ethnic Studies NOW (WAESN) paints Israel as a settler colonial state and XITO’s Institute focuses on Israel’s settler colonialism. WAESN was contracted in 2021 with the Washington State Board of Education to train its members and remains an approved clock hour provider for Washington State’s teacher continuing education requirement.

Local and state teachers unions push the CLES agenda. For example, the LA Teachers’ Union (UTLA) was an active proponent for the Liberated Ethnic Studies version of the curriculum in LA public schools. Meanwhile, CLES leader Titiangco-Cubales was a consultant for the Boston Teacher Union’s ethnic studies program.[19]

This convergence of financial interests and ideological fervor underscores the multifaceted nature of the Liberated Ethnic Studies activists. They play an influential role in advocating for their cause within local districts, teacher unions and at the state level.


CLES members continue their national work under the influence of radical anti-Israel activists, offering district-based consulting contracts, teacher workshops, ideologically infused curricula, and presenting at educator conferences. They defame the world’s only Jewish state and seek to ostracize Jews. While proclaiming their allegiance to social justice causes that fight racism, they spread hatred of Jews. They conceal Palestinian aggression and justify the most horrific atrocities as resistance to what they allege are cruel, imperialist Jews.

Their response to the recent atrocities committed by Hamas against innocent Israeli citizens, including infants, was to post, “from the river to the sea” a statement recognized as calling for the destruction of the State of Israel. They repeat the talking points of anti-Israel activists. For example, CLES reposted on their social media the claim that Gaza has become a prison from Israel’s attacks without any acknowledgement of the responsibility of the terrorist group Hamas or the fact that a large proportion of Palestinians have voted and voiced support for Hamas and other terrorist groups that launch violent attacks against Jews:

The antisemitic rhetoric and vilification of Israel propagated by Liberated Ethnic Studies activists resembles the propaganda disseminated by Hamas. State elected officials and educational institutions must exercise vigilance when assessing curriculum materials and teacher professional workshops from activist groups. Schools adopting curricula and presenting teacher trainings by CLES activists need to be exposed and held accountable for encouraging such misinformed teaching and allowing divisive materials into their schools to poison young minds.

Parents need to insist, and schools need to ensure, that ethnic studies content follow established vetting procedures for new curricula. Activists and their programs that incite hatred against Jews have no place in schools.

[1] Source provided information on background basis.

[2] Teacher-activists:

–Danny Blas, Chriseah, Danielle Bulante, Ivan Santos, Maureen Tecson, Samia Shoman, Shannon Deloso, Eunice Ho, Kathleen Vu, Ray Garrido, and faeac2015.  See July 15, 2020 email from Tracie Noriega to Danny Blas and others, subject “API Team Update” signed Tracie Noriega, Assistant Superintendent Educational Services, San Lorenzo Unified School District.  

–Guadalupe (Lupe) Cardona, Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen, Guillermo Gomez, Tauyna Jaco, Mary Levi, Theresa Montaño , Tracie Noriega, Jorge Pacheco, Stevie Ruiz, and Allyson Tintiangco-Cubales. See July 28, 2020 email from Guadalupe Cardona to Taunya Jaco and others, subject “AUG 3 LESMC Leads.”

–Artnelson Concordia, Melissa Moreno, B Neddeau, Samia Shoman, Eunice Ho, faeac2015 and those listed above (except Tintiangco-Cubales).  See February 11, 2021 email to [email protected] and others, subject “LESMC Leads Meeting” signed by Tracie Noriega, Assistant Superintendent Educational Services, San Lorenzo Unified School District.     

The above was seen by the report’s authors.

[3] See document in July 7, 2020 email from Guadalupe Cardona, subject “Whole LESMC Meeting July 8, 10am-1pm” (July 8, 2020 schedule), as seen by the report’s authors.

[4] See document in July 7, 2020 email from Filipino American Educators Association of California (faeac2015), subject “LESMC: Asian American and Pacific Islander Studies Team.docx” as seen by the report’s authors.

[5] “Under The Radar Ethnic Studies Activists Push Anti-Israel Content Into Schools.” CAMERA, Education Institute, https://www.camera.org/article/under-the-radar-ethnic-studies-activists-push-anti-israel-content-into-american-schools/. Accessed October 8, 2023.

[6] https://www.liberatedethnicstudies.org/who-we-are.html. Accessed October 10, 2023.

[7] https://palestinewrites.org/2023/06/13/samia-shoman/. Accessed October 11, 2023.

[8] Slide presentation in September 7, 2021 email from Dr. Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen to Taunya Jaco and others, subject “Re: Acceptance of Panel Proposal for 11th Int’l Conference on Education & Justice 2021.” Copy on file.

[9] Ethnic Studies teacher professional development, North Thurston Public School District, April 16, 2022. Copy on File.

[10] African American Studies lecture, Santa Cruz Office of Education, December 7, 2021. Copy on File.

[11] Ethnic Studies PLC 5 “Boston Intro to Ethnic Studies Pilot, Session 5, July 1, 2021, Boston Public School District. Copy on file.

[12] Source provided information on background basis.

[13] Slide presentation in September 7, 2021 email from Dr. Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen to Taunya Jaco and others, subject “Re: Acceptance of Panel Proposal for 11th Int’l Conference on Education & Justice 2021.” Copy on file.

[14] Source provided information on background basis.

[15] CLES email from Community Organizer and Member Coordinator for the Arab Resource and Organizing Center (AROC), Sharif Zakout with subject “Join the National Liberated Ethnic Studies Coalition!” January 11, 2022. As seen by the report’s authors.

[16] Source provided information on background basis.

[17] Source provided information on background basis.

[18] https://education.vermont.gov/sites/aoe/files/documents/2023119Act.%201%20meeting%20notes.pdf Accessed October 11, 2023.

[19] The link of her involvement with the BTU’s ethnic studies program has since been removed and can only be found on Web Archive.


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