The Anti-Semitic Rhetoric of Anti-Zionists

There was a time, not so long ago, when there was wide consensus about what antisemitism is and why it should be combatted in all its forms.  Manifestations of Jew hatred and anti-Semitic rhetoric were relegated to the fringes of society in the decades following the defeat of the Nazi regime and the exposure of their atrocities in the Holocaust.  But as time progressed, classic anti-Semitism re-emerged from the shadows.  In addition, anti-Zionism — the rejection of self-determination for Jews in their ancestral homeland— continues to gain considerable ground, sparking debate about whether it is just another manifestation of anti-Semitism.

Anti-Zionists contend that anti-Zionism is a political position rooted in progressive values and principled advocacy for Palestinians whom they consider the rightful heirs to the Holy Land and that charges of anti-Semitism are just cynical smears meant to muzzle legitimate criticism of Israel. They claim that anti-Semitism is limited to the far-right, white supremacists and neo-Nazis.

It is instructive therefore to compare the language and rhetoric used by prominent anti-Zionist organizations, politicians, journalists and activists to the classic antisemitic tropes disseminated by Nazis in the prelude to and during the Holocaust.

Themes and Tropes Used in Nazi Germany Propaganda

When Nazi party leader Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, his personal manifesto, Mein Kampf [My Struggle], became a bestseller in Germany. It clearly spelled out his political ideology, hatred and demonization of Jews. To further promote his position, Hitler appointed Joseph Goebbels to head the new Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda in Berlin as well as the propaganda office of the Reich (Reich Propagandaleitung) in Munich. The goal was to shape public opinion and foment hatred against Jews. To that end, Nazi propaganda incorporated classic anti-Jewish blood libels and medieval anti-Semitic canards about Jews being agents of the devil seeking supremacy over non-Jews. These canards were amplified with ones about Jewish racism, criminality, deviousness, greed, wealth, and corruption.  Propaganda became the first weapon employed by Hitler and his Nazi party in the battle to transform public opinion, vilify Jews and pave the way for the Holocaust.

What follows is a comparison of the tropes and themes used in Nazi propaganda to those used by current-day anti-Zionist activists.

While Nazi propagandists demonized ‘Jews’ as a collective, anti-Zionists substitute ‘Israel’ or ‘Zionists’ as the largest and most prominent, modern-day collective of Jews.

1) Jewish Supremacy, Imperialism and Conquest

NAZI GERMANY

The trope of Jewish supremacy and conquest was a mainstay of Nazi indoctrination. The old anti-Semitic canard about Jews seeking to dominate and control the world’s non-Jews was popularized in the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion and was resurrected by the Nazis who promoted it as incontrovertible truth. It was presented as the primary evil to be defeated.

“The secret goals of the Jewish people are laid out in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Der Stürmer has written about them more than a hundred times. They contain the Jewish plan for world conquest … “(Lead article in Der Stürmer, 1933 [1])

“The goal of the Jew is to make himself the ruler of humanity.” (Instructional booklet for young Germans on Nazi party’s program and leaders, 1934 [2])

“Is it any wonder that the Jew is arrogant … Pride, intolerance and superiority on the one hand, a drive for world domination on the other.” (Pamphlet summarizing the Nazi’s ‘Aryan Law’ [3])

“The Jew…sees himself and those like him as the ‘chosen people’ to whom all other peoples must be subordinate … [The Jews’] goal was to force this people under his thumb, and to become its absolute and complete ruler. He sees himself as the people called and chosen to rule, whose goal is ‘to devour the peoples of the earth’  to bring them under his power.” (Reichspropagandaleitung’s monthly bulletin for speakers, 1935 [4])

Books with such themes and titles as Jewish Power: Its Nature and Aims (Ludendorff 1939), Jewish World Domination (Custos, 1933), and  Jewish Imperialism (Schwartz-Bostunitch 1935) were published and distributed in pre-war Germany to inculcate the people with this theme.

The line used to indoctrinate young, impressionable Germans was that ‘Die jüdische Vorherrschaft’ — ‘Jewish supremacy’ — would be defeated by the great savior of Germany, as demonstrated in an educational presentation to Hitler Youth, entitled “Germany Overcomes Jewry.” The caption: “Adolf Hitler, with his movement breaks Jewish supremacy.” [5]

MODERN-DAY ANTI-ZIONISTS

The same trope that had been so successfully employed by Hitler and his Nazi party has become the backbone of current anti-Zionist propaganda, most recently with the controversial position paper of the Israel-based NGO, B’tselem, that is singularly focused on attacking Israel:

“A regime of Jewish supremacy … advancing and perpetuating the supremacy of one group – Jews – over another – Palestinians … The Israeli regime has grown increasingly explicit regarding its Jewish supremacist ideology … ” (B’tselem, “This is Apartheid,” 2021 [6])

While anti-Zionists have readily seized on B’tselem’s linchpin ‘Jewish supremacy’ theme, it had already been gaining currency among anti-Zionists even before that.

“[Israel’s religious leaders] believe that everybody that is not a Jew is only on earth to serve them and they believe that the Indigenous people of the region that they kicked off the land in 1948 and have continued to kick off the land ever since are sub-human.” (Rock musician/anti-Zionist activist Roger Waters, 2013 [7])

“How can you …support a state like Israel that is based on supremacy, that is built on the idea that Jews are supreme to everyone else?”  (American BDS activist Linda Sarsour, 2019 [8])

“Jewish supremacy is a characteristic of the Zionist Jewish state of Israel… Israeli leaders are Jewish supremacists — i.e, they identify as Jews and justify their rapacious past and present in Palestine as a Jewish supremacist right …” (Author/BDS leader Rima Najjar, 2020 [9])

Other themes used by the Nazi regime to demonize the Jews have similarly been incorporated into anti-Zionist rhetoric.

2) Racism

NAZI GERMANY

While racism – the notion of the racial superiority and purity of the Aryan – was central to Nazi ideology and lauded as its aspirational goal, Hitler and his Nazi propagandists projected the evil and immorality of their ideology onto the Jews whom they falsely accused of harboring the same objectives. For example:

“With every means [the Jew] tries to destroy the racial foundations of the people he has set out to subjugate.” (Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf)

“Jewry is a fanatic proponent of racial theory…” (Reichspropagandaleitung’s monthly bulletin for speakers, 1935 [10])

“The Jews are one of the most racially conscious peoples… Leading Jews have always stressed the importance of race and racial purity … His parasitic nature led the Jew to hold his own race pure, and to strike other races at the core of their being, their racial nature … ” (SS Handbook on racial policy, 1943 [11])

MODERN-DAY ANTI-ZIONISTS

The Nazis’ racist ideology is universally recognized today as evil and immoral; modern-day anti-Zionists continue the pattern of Nazi projection of racism’s immorality onto Israel and Zionism.  

“[Zionism] is an ideology which was rooted in the racism, colonialism and ethnic nationalism of the nineteenth century in which it was born, and the practical application of which (i.e. the creation of Israel) has showed their pernicious influence at every stage … ” (UK Labour Party member Ian Wellens, 2020 [12])

“I think it’s really important to understand Israel is a racist state … “(U.S. Representative of Congress Rashida Tlaib, 2021 [13])

“Zionism is racism and Israel is a war criminal apartheid regime, an inherently racist endeavor founded on ethnic cleansing and lies … “(Journalist/Founder of Electronic Intifada Ali Abunimah, tweet, 2021)

3) Criminals and Murderers

NAZI GERMANY

The theme of Jewish criminality and murder was used in Nazi Germany to frighten the non-Jewish populace and justify the genocide of Jews.

Nazi propagandist Johann Von Leers dwelt on the theme of ‘Jewish criminality’. His 1944 book Die Verbrechernatur der Juden (‘The Criminal Nature of Jews’), which declared ‘Judaism’ a ‘hereditary criminality’, was a culmination of his repeated use of the theme.

Der Jude Kriminell” (“The Jew Criminal”) was an article by SS-Gruppenführer Kurt Daluege in a 1935 edition of Neues Volk, a publication put out by the Nazi Racial Policy Office.

It was a theme revisited frequently in articles and speeches by Nazi propagandists.

“[The Jews are] a people of criminals and murderers.” (Lead article in Der Stürmer, 1933 [14])

“A race of world criminals” is how Julius Streicher, founder and publisher of Der Stürmer, a central organ of Nazi propaganda, described the Jews. [15]

Nazi official Robert Ley spoke of the “devilish, life-denying and destructive doctrines” of the Jew. [16]

MODERN-DAY ANTI-ZIONISTS

A similar canard that replaces ‘the Jew’ with ‘Israel’ or ‘Zionists’ is repeated by modern-day anti-Zionists.

“Israel is a criminal state and deserves to be condemned.” (Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, 2019 [17])

“Genocide is the word that best captures the dynamics of Zionist and Israeli policy when it’s considered in historic perspective.” (California State University Professor/BDS leader Mohammed Abed, 2015 [18])

“Israel is a genocidal ‘state’ that practices a holocaust against the Palestinian people.” (CEBRAZ – Brazilian Centre for Solidarity with the Peoples and Struggle for Peace Regional Director Sayid Tenório in a tweet, April 6, 2018)

“The accused today…are the criminal State of Israel and its accomplices who will be mentioned in this courtroom for aiding and abetting in Israeli crimes against humanity.” (BDS activist Ronnie Barkan, speaking in his own defense in a Berlin court where he was tried for criminal trespass during a Humboldt University presentation by a Holocaust survivor and an Israeli politician, March 4, 2019)

4) Devious, Liars and Slanderers

NAZI GERMANY

Jews were portrayed as devious schemers who lulled their unsuspecting victims into a false sense of security, lied about their actions and slandered their opponents. 

“To the outside, the Jew works anxiously to conceal the differences between him and his host people, to lull them to sleep so that he can continue his destructive activities undisturbed … “(Reichspropagandaleitung’s monthly bulletin for speakers, 1935 [19])

“One of the greatest thinkers that mankind has produced has branded the Jews for all time with a statement which is profoundly and exactly true … ‘The Great Master of Lies’.”  (Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf)

“They will stop at nothing. They will lie and slander, and continually attempt to incite the whole world against Germany. Every means a Jewish brain can think of will be used.” (Lead article in Der Stürmer, 1933 [20])

MODERN-DAY ANTI-ZIONISTS

These same themes permeate anti-Zionist rhetoric. 

“Israel has hypnotized the world; may Allah awaken the people and help them see the evil doings of Israel.” (U.S. Member of Congress Ilhan Omar tweet, Nov. 16, 2012)

“All governments lie…But Israel engages in the kinds of jaw-dropping lies that characterize despotic and totalitarian regimes…It does not deform the truth; it inverts it.” (Former New York Times correspondent Chris Hedges [21])

“Zionist groups … use civil rights laws to … slander those who dare to teach or undertake activities about Palestinian rights as ‘anti-Semites’.” (Ali Abunimah [22])

5) Tumours and Parasites

NAZI GERMANY

Jews were portrayed as Untermenschen (subhuman), as rodents, vermin and particularly as parasites who take over and poison the bodies and lives of non-Jews.  Such characterizations were both visual, in cartoons and covers of publications, and descriptive, in Nazi rhetoric.

“[The Jew was] only and always a parasite in the body of other peoples …He is and remains the typical parasite, a sponger who like a noxious bacillus keeps spreading as soon as a favourable medium invites him.” (Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf)

“Jewry undermines every people and every state that it infiltrates. It feeds as a parasite and a culture-killing worm in the host people… that is the pestilential nature of Jewry, against which every people, every state, every nation must, should, and wants to defend itself if it does not want to be the victim of this bloody plague.” (Nazi politician/journalist Herman Esser, 1939 [23])

“The Jew is the parasite of humanity. He can be a parasite for an individual person, a social parasite for whole peoples, and the world parasite of humanity.” (Nazi party educational pamphlet, 1943 [24])

MODERN-DAY ANTI-ZIONISTS

Among modern-day anti-Zionists, the parasite is translated as a tumor or cancer that invades and destroys its host.  

“The Zionist regime is a deadly, cancerous growth and a detriment to this region. It will undoubtedly be uprooted and destroyed.” (Iran Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, speech on Iran’s state television, May 22, 2020)

“Israel is a cancer and will be extirpated from Palestinian lands.” (Sayid Tenório in a tweet, April 6, 2018)

“[The State of Israel is] ‘an overgrown, malignant tumour that appeared in the Middle East’.” (Muslim Student Association, 1990 [25])

6) Money and Influence

NAZI GERMANY

Jewish love of money and greed was a major theme of Nazi propaganda, depicted in cartoons, books and described in articles and speeches.  International Jewry was accused of wielding money as a corrupting influence to gain power and control over non-Jews.

“Mammon worship and materialist thought [is] incarnated in international Jewry, scattered throughout every country of the globe…” (Nazi Minister of Propaganda Josef Goebbels, 1935 [26])

“Even kings and emperors fall victim to the Jew’s weapon of money…” (Nazi school textbook, 1937 [27])

“How has the Jew subjugated the peoples?  With money …”(Reichspropagandaleitung’s monthly bulletin for speakers, 1935 [28])

MODERN-DAY ANTI-ZIONISTS

Anti-Zionists have borrowed this theme to attack political contributions from Jewish philanthropists and supporters of Israel as a corrupting influence.

“The powerful pro-Israel Zionist lobby in Britain … wields money and influence within parliament … ” (British journalist/activist Yvonne Ridley, 2017 [29])

“It’s all about the Benjamins baby. ” (U.S. Member of Congress Ilhan Omar referring to Jewish money buying influence in a tweet, Feb. 10, 2019)

“We are obviously not going to get a proper investigation of this by Comrade Starmer or by Lisa Nandy – who have been in receipt of money from the Zionist movement, from Trevor Chinn.” (Former UK Labour Party member/University of Bristol Professor David Miller alleging that a donation from a Jewish philanthropist to Labour Party leader Keir Starmer corrupted him and prevented an honest investigation into a leaked anti-Semitism report in April 2020. Miller later proclaimed that the aim is “to end Zionism as a functioning ideology of the world.”)

7) Zionism

NAZI GERMANY

A popular canard among anti-Zionists is that Hitler supported Zionism. They base this on the fact that the Nazi regime, in the 1930’s, allowed German Jews to emigrate, some to Palestine, seeing it as an opportunity to rid the country of the despised Jews while taking money from and appropriating most of the émigrés’ assets. In fact, Hitler and his Nazis loathed Zionism, viewing it as a devious ploy by World Jewry to create an international headquarters for the Jews’ nefarious schemes and designs. As Hitler wrote in his manifesto:

“[W]hile the Zionists try to make the rest of the world believe that the national consciousness of the Jew finds its satisfaction in the creation of a Palestinian state, the Jews again slyly dupe the dumb Goyim. It doesn’t even enter their heads to build up a Jewish state in Palestine for the purpose of living there; all they want is a central organization for their international world swindle, endowed with its own sovereign rights and removed from the intervention of other states: a haven for convicted scoundrels and a university for budding crooks.” (Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf)

The Nazis cast Zionism as illegitimate, a subterfuge, and the Arabs as the rightful owners of the land.

“Zionism developed the nonsensical notion of an ‘historic claim’ to the ‘promised land,’ to which Jews ‘without any outside pressure’ would gradually emigrate … Political Zionism never intended Palestine to be the destination of all Jews, but rather it merely wants to make Palestine the centre of Jewish world policy … The Arabs are, after all, the undisputed owners of the land.” (Nazi party member Arno Schickedanz, 1936 article on Zionism [30])

Indeed, it was not the Zionists whom Hitler supported but the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al Husseini, with whom he collaborated to eradicate the Jews.  By 1941, Nazis no longer allowed Jews to emigrate, choosing extermination and incineration instead of migration to achieve what the Nazis termed the “Final Solution” of the Jewish question.  In addition, Hitler made a deal with the Grand Mufti to rid the Middle East of Jews, as University of Maryland historian Professor Jeffrey Herf explains:

In November 1941, Hitler promised the Mufti, then in Berlin, that if and when the German armies were successful in the Caucuses, they would drive south to destroy the Jewish population then living in areas controlled by Britain in North Africa and the Middle East. In the summer and autumn of 1942, German General Erwin Rommel’s Afrikakorps drove east from Tunisia to be met by forces from Australia, New Zealand and Britain at the Battle of El Alamein in Egypt. Nazi propaganda in those weeks and months urged Arab listeners to “kill the Jews,” dispensing with any distinctions between Zionists and Jews.

MODERN-DAY ANTI-ZIONISTS

Anti-Zionists, by definition, strive to delegitimize Zionism as did the Nazis, and thus portray it as rooted in lies.

“Zionism is based on the creation of an alternative narrative, part of it related to the Biblical narrative and part of it just manufactured … “(Journal of Palestine Studies editor/Palestinian advisor Rashid Khalidi, 2020 [31])

“[T]he Jewish State of Israel, the bastard progeny of Zionism’s rape of Palestine, is still ‘thriving’ among us as the fictitious ‘ancestral homeland’ of Jews.” (Rima Najjar, 2019 [32])

Conclusion

And so, it appears that much anti-Zionist rhetoric echoes the sort of anti-Semitic propaganda put forth by the Nazis.

That some Jews engage in it – often offered as proof that anti-Zionism is not anti-Semitism – also finds precedent under the Nazi regime.  There were Jews on the fringes (for example, the Verband nationaldeutscher Juden, League of National German Jews, headed by Max Naumann) in pre-war Nazi Germany who helped agitate against Jews, as well.

With Nazism widely recognized as the embodiment of evil, anti-Zionists attempt to link Zionism to Nazism. Ken Livingstone, the former mayor of London and an avowed anti-Zionist, was suspended by the UK’s Labour Party in 2016 and resigned from the party in 2018 over his repeated false allegations of a Zionist-Nazi collaboration, twisting the emigration of Jews from Germany to Palestine in the 1930’s into Nazi “support” for Zionism. An exemplar of modern-day anti-Zionists who defend themselves by lashing out at their critics and projecting the immorality and vileness of their own rhetoric onto those who are its victims, Livingstone claims criticism of this and other anti-Semitic rhetoric by himself and other UK Labour Party members is just ‘lies and slander’, insisting that ‘it’s not anti-Semitic to hate the Jews of Israel’. 

Livingstone is supported by Asa Winstanley, the associate editor of Electronic Intifada who promotes the same canard that the Nazis supported and encouraged Zionism.

 “… both Nazis and Zionists agreed on the same antisemitic idea: “Jews in Germany” were not actually real Germans and should leave the country preferably for Palestine…It’s a historical fact there was material support by Hitler and the Nazis for the German Zionist movement. Ken [Livingstone] should not have been suspended in the first place.” (Asa Winstanley, in a series of tweets.)

At the same time, anti-Zionist activists directly equate the Jewish state to the Nazi regime.

“More than 80 years after Nazi Germany enacted what came to be known as the Nuremberg Race Laws, Israeli legislators …essentially codified ‘Jewish supremacy’ into law, which effectively mirrors the Nazi-era legislation of ethnoreligious stratification of German citizenry.” (Writer/activist Susan Abulhawa, 2018 [33])

“No need for a holocaust museum, seeing as Israel has taken it upon itself to recreate it. #Israel #Nazis” (San Francisco Bay Area CAIR Executive Director Zahra Billoo tweet, July 24, 2010)

“Israel ‘defending’ itself from Palestinians is analogous to Nazi Germany defending itself from Jewish uprising.” (Zahra Billoo, tweet, May 13, 2014)

Similar comparisons of Zionists to Nazis have been made, using the term “zionazis” that is so popular in anti-Zionist social media, as in this sarcastic tweet:

“Indeed, the zionazis are a bunch of nice people; just like their nazi brethren! It is just that the world keeps making up lies about them! It is so unfair.” (Southern California CAIR Director Hussam Ayloush, 2002 [34])

Ironically, the Nazis projected their own sins onto the Jews: They aspired to Aryan racial purity while accusing Jews of being the racists.  They were guilty of genocide and heinous crimes against humanity while accusing Jews of being criminals and murderers.  They lied, slandered, incited and ensnared the Jews with deviousness while accusing Jews of those behaviours. They acted as a malignancy that took over and extinguished Jewish life while accusing Jews of infiltrating the body like parasites.  

In short, they projected their own Nazi brand of evil onto the Jews in order to demonize them.  And in vilifying Zionists and the Jewish state with the same brand of evil, modern-day anti-Zionists are doing much the same.


[1]  “Die Geheimpläne gegen Deutschland enthüllt[Secret Plans Against Germany Revealed], Der  Stürmer 27 (July 1933): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[2] Werner May, Deutscher National-Katechismus [The German National Catechism], 2nd edition, Breslau (1934): Verlag von Heinrich Handel: Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[3] E. H. Schulz and R. Frercks, “Warum Arierparagraph? Ein Beitrag zur Judenfrage” [Why the Aryan Law? A Contribution to the Jewish Question] Berlin: Verlag Neues Volk (1934): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[4] Aufklärungs- und Redner-Informationsmaterial der Reichspropagandaleitung der NSDAP [“Our Battle Against Judah,” Educational and speaker information material from the Reich Propagandaleitung of the NSDAP], Lieferung (August 1935): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[5] Photograph 93597, US Holocaust Memorial Museum archives

[6]  B’tselem, ‘This is Apartheid‘ (Jan. 12, 2021)

[7] Barat, Frank, ‘An Interview with Roger Waters’, in Counterpunch.org, (Dec. 6, 2013)

[8]  Address to the 12th Annual Conference for Palestine in the US (Nov. 29, 2019)

[9] Najjar, Rima ‘Why Jewish Supremacy In Palestine Must Be Called Out’, Countercurrents.org (June 30, 2020)

[10] Aufklärungs- und Redner-Informationsmaterial der Reichspropagandaleitung der NSDAP [“Our Battle Against Judah,” Educational and speaker information material from the Reich Propagandaleitung of the NSDAP], Lieferung (August 1935: Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated )by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[11] Der Reichsführer SS/SS-Hauptamt [SS-Main office handbook], “Rassenpolitik,” [Racial Policy] (1943): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[12]An open letter to UK Labour leader Keir Starmer”‘  Mondoweiss.net (April 10, 2020)

[13] Democracy Now radio interview with Rashida Tlaib (Jan. 19, 2021)

[14] “Die Geheimpläne gegen Deutschland enthüllt[Secret Plans Against Germany Revealed], Der Stürmer 27 (July 1933): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[15] Quoted in “Julius Streicher Opens Anti-Semitic Fair“, New York Times (Nov. 9, 1937)

[16] Robert Ley in a speech to Nazi party leaders entitled ‘Wir oder die Juden’ [We or the Jews] (March 31, 1939)

[17] Mahathir Mohamad, “A genocidal state“, malaysiakini.com (Jan. 28, 2019)

[18]  Abed in a panel discussion at an anti-Zionist conference entitled “Palestine, Israel and the Assault on Academic Freedom” held at the University of California on Oct. 22-23, 2015

[19] Aufklärungs- und Redner-Informationsmaterial der Reichspropagandaleitung der NSDAP [“Our Battle Against Judah,” Educational and speaker information material from the Reich Propagandaleitung of the NSDAP], Lieferung (August 1935): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[20] “Die Geheimpläne gegen Deutschland enthüllt[Secret Plans Against Germany Revealed], Der Stürmer 27 (July 1933): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[21] Chris Hedges,  “How Israel’s lies are used to justify mass slaughter of civilians in Gaza”, Campaign Against Sanctions and Military Intervention in Iran (Aug. 7, 2014)

[22]  Ali Abunimah, “US launches “civil rights” probe at Columbia University as Zionist censorship, smears intensify“, Electronic Intifada (Oct. 5, 2011)

[23]  Herman Esser,  Die jüdische Weltpest [The Jewish World Plague], Munich: Zentralverlag der NSDAP (1939): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[24] Otto, G.G. Der Jude als Weltparasit [The Jew as World Parasite], Munich:  (1943): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[25] Quoted by Kenneth Stern in Anti-Zionism: The Sophisticated Anti-Semitismpublication of the American Jewish Committee (Sept. 1990)

[26] Goebbels in speech to Nazi Party annual congress entitled “Communism with the Mask Off” (Sept. 12, 1935): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[27] Karl Bareth and Alfred Vogel, Erblehre und Rassenkunde für die Grund- und Hauptschule [Heredity and Racial Science for Elementary and Secondary Schools] 2nd edition, Bühl-Baden: Verlag Konkordia (1937): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[28] Aufklärungs- und Redner-Informationsmaterial der Reichspropagandaleitung der NSDAP [“Our Battle Against Judah,” Educational and speaker information material from the Reich Propagandaleitung of the NSDAP], Lieferung (August 1935): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[29]  Yvonne Ridley, “Zionists threaten British government over illegal settlement vote at the UN“, Middle East Monitor (Jan. 12, 2017)

[30]  Arno Schickedanz, ’Der Zionismus’ [Zionism], Der Schulungsbrief 3, April (1936): Calvin University’s German Propaganda Archive, collected and translated by Professor Emeritus Randall Bytwerk

[31] Russia Today, “On Contact with Chris Hedges” interview  with Rashid Khalidi (May 3,2020)

[32] Rima Najjar, “Israel was Forced on Palestinians — as in Rape” Countercurrents.org (May 15, 2019)

[33]  Susan Abulhawa, “Israel’s ‘nation-state law’ parallels the Nazi Nuremberg Laws” Al Jazeera (July 26, 2018) 

[34] Reported by the Investigative Project on Terrorism, ‘CAIR’s Extremism and Anti-Semitism‘  (May 18, 2002)